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Library Guide for International Students

Selecting Information Sources

The type of information sources you use will depend upon your research topic and the requirements of your research project.

Ask yourself these questions to determine the types of information sources most useful for your research:

  • Which sources will provide answers to your questions quickly and easily (It's not always the Internet!!)
  • Which sources will provide reliable information?
  • Do you need current or historical information on my topic?
  • Do you need primary or secondary sources?
  • Do you need descriptive or analytical sources

Types of Sources

Think about the types of information you need to find on your topic.


  • General information - choose nonfiction books, reference books/encyclopedias or reference/encyclopedia databases or web pages
  • Academic, Peer-reviewed, Scholarly - choose academic books, scholarly and peer-reviewed journal articles
  • Facts and Statistics choose handbooks, yearbooks, or almanacs (print or from databases or online) and U.S. government information available on the web
  • Historical information - choose nonfiction books, reference books, encyclopedias, online archives
  • Opinions - choose magazine and newspaper articles (print or from databases) or online
  • Maps, Images, Charts - Choose web pages, almanacs/reference books (print or from databases)
  • Breaking News - Choose news web pages, social media sites, magazines or newspapers 

You should always use a variety of sources in your research so that you get the best, most complete and current information and can validate information across different sources. 

Is Your Source Reliable?

Evaluating information sources is critical to the process of academic research. Make sure that you are reading and presenting accurate information.

Use the PARCA Test to critically evaluate your sources and determine in what way they might be useful (or not) for your research.

  • Purpose: What is the purpose of the information? Why does it exist?
  • Authority: Who is the author, publisher, or source? Are they qualified to write on the topic?
  • Relevance: Does the information relate to your topic? Would you be comfortable citing this source in a research paper?
  • Currency: When was the information published, posted, revised, or updated? Does the source contain current information?
  • Accuracy: Is the information supported by evidence? How reliable or truthful is the content?

Primary vs. Secondary Sources


Primary sources, containing firsthand knowledge, observation or information are created when an event is currently happening.  Examples of primary sources include:

  • Novels, poems, artwork, films, songs
  • Diaries, personal journals, autobiographies, memoirs, letters, emails, legal documents
  • Pictures, maps, sketches, drawings, photographs
  • Interview transcripts, eyewitness reports, historical documents
  • Reports of scientific experiments


Secondary sources are written after an event has occurred, sometimes many years later.  These sources summarize or analyze the information from primary sources.  Secondary source examples include:

  • Interpretation and appreciation of literature, summary or commentary on research, historical and biographical writings based on factual events and primary sources are examples of secondary sources.
  • Biographies, articles based on an interview
  • Textbooks, reference books, nonfiction books
  • Magazine articles (usually)

Descriptive vs. Analytical Sources

‚ÄčDescriptive sources:

  • provide descriptions/data based on observation and measurement
  • report findings, they do not interpret them
  • may describe a process, action, or event, alone or as part of a series, as in the case of an historical perspective of the laws regarding a particular topic or an overview of the scientific findings regarding a particular topic.


Analytic sources:

  • examine descriptive data in a systematic, logical, scientific manner with the purpose of interpreting what the data means, implies or how it might be applied
  • considers the parts as related to the whole of a process, action or event
  • draw conclusions about those involved, the causes or ramifications
  • may support their conclusions by use of comparisons to similar data. 

Evaluating Websites for Reliability

The internet is a valuable information source, but it is also full of misinformation. Here are a few questions that can help you determine the reliability of a website and its appropriateness for your research.

  • What is the domain of the website?
    Typically, content on domains with “.edu,” “.org” or “.gov” are from more legitimate sources than content from “.com.”

  • What is the purpose of the information?
    Make sure the website doesn’t promote a product or an ideology or present an organization bias.

  • Who is the author, publisher, or source? Are they an authority on the subject?
    Look for the author’s identity and also any information about their educational background, professional credentials, etc.

  • Does the information relate to your topic? (relevance)
    Make sure that the web pages are relevant to your research and contain information that is thorough and substantial.

  • How current is the information?
    Look for the date of publication to ensure that information presented is up-to-date.

  • How accurate/truthful is the content?
    Compare the web page to related sources, electronic or print, for assistance in determining its accuracy. Look for factual information (historical or statistical), research/fieldwork observations, as well as citations/footnotes and list of references/bibliography.

For more information on this subject, see our guide on Identifying Fake News.