Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

GPY 4384 Research Methods

Art Therapy - Research Methodology

APA Citation Style

American Psychological Association (APA) style is used across many academic disciplines, but as its name suggests it is the standard for Psychology and many other social sciences. The full content of the 7th edition APA Style Guide is available on their website.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) and Excelsior Online Writing Lab are also excellent sources for information on how to use APA style, including how to format papers, create a bibliography, cite in text, and more.

Creating References in APA 7th Edition

In-text Citations

In-text citations in APA use an author-date format. Both paraphrasing and direct quotations require citations, though they can be either parenthetical or narrative. Direct quotations must also include page numbers, if print material.

The purpose of in-text citations is to refer readers to the full citation on the reference page.

in-text citation example

Reference List

APA reference lists must be alphabetical by the last name of the primary author. Multiple works by the same author are listed chronologically.

The general format for reference list citations is:

Article: Last Name, First Initials (Year Published). Article Title. Journal Title, volume(issue), page numbers.

Book: Last Name, First Initials (Year Published). Book Title. Publisher.

More examples and instructions on citing these and other materials can be found on the APA website.

APA 7th Edition - What's New?