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HOW TO CITE

Use the tabbed options below to find the info you need to know about how to cite your work properly, demonstrate your excellent research, and avoid plagiarism

Plagiarism

Per NDNU Student Conduct Code, "Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit."  Plagiarism is cheating and is viewed as "academic dishonesty" and therefore, "academic misconduct."

You have plagiarized when you...

  • Turn in someone else's paper or essay as your own
  • Copy sections from another sources without properly citing the source
  • Copy and paste sections from a web page into your paper without properly citing the source. Information found on the Internet is not free
  • You express the ideas of another author and pretend they are your own original ideas                                                                                     

To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit by citing sources whenever you use

  • another person’s idea, opinion, or theory

  • any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge

  • quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words

  • paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words

 

You don’t need to cite sources when the information you write about are common facts, your own original research, and/or your own opinions and evaluations.

 

Some tips to avoid unintentional plagiarism

  • Start early! Research and writing may take much longer if the students' native language is not English. It might take you longer to finish your research paper.
  • Take accurate notes when you are doing research.
  • Write down the complete citation for each item you might use. If you have made copies of journal articles, book chapters, or other materials, be sure that the author, title, subtitle, date, and all the other necessary citation information is on the photocopy. If you aren't sure what information is needed for a citation, check the citation style you will be using.
  • Follow required style guide (APA, MLA) when you are writing your paper to properly credit your sources.
  • When in doubt, cite!
 

Self-plagiarism

Self-plagiarism is the reuse of one's own work without providing proper attribution.  Self-plagiarism can have both legal and ethical implications.  You can learn more about self-plagiarism and how to avoid it in the resources linked below. 

IThenticate white paper on self-plagiarism

Roig, M. (2006). Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other questionable writing practices: A guide to ethical writing. Retrieved from https://www.cse.msu.edu/~alexliu/plagiarism.pdf

 

NDNU Policy on Academic Misconduct

NDNU, like all American universities, views plagiarism as "academic misconduct" or "academic dishonesty" or "violation of academic integrity."

NDNU's Policies regarding Academic Misconduct take from NDNU's Student Conduct Code

Per NDNU's Student Conduct Code, "representing another person‟s ideas, processes, results, or words, as your own; using the ideas, organization, or words of another from a book, article, paper, computer file, or another source in any assignment without giving proper credit following accepted citation rules" is viewed as plagiarism.

Academic Misconduct Introduction: All members of the university community have a responsibility to protect and maintain an academic climate of integrity and ethics. Academic relationships should be governed by a sense of trust and a commitment to learning and working in an environment that is a level playing field for all students. Deceptive acts violate the standards that are critical for every student to have his/her work equitably evaluated. It is important that a member of the community who is aware of a breach of the standard of conduct bring it to the attention of the course instructor.

Definition of Academic Misconduct: Academic misconduct involves wrongful acts occurring in the course of or related to curricular activities including but not limited to:

  • Using unauthorized materials (such as notes or books) as an aid during an examination
  • Copying answers from another person‟s exam, report or assignment
  • Providing assistance to, or receiving assistance from, another person in any manner prohibited by the instructor
  • Possessing or providing an examination or assignment, or any part thereof, at any time or in any manner not authorized by the instructor
  • Taking a quiz, exam or any similar assignment for another person, or utilizing another person to take a quiz, exam or assignment in place of oneself
  • Submitting any course materials or activities not the student‟s own, allowing such a submission to be made for oneself, or making such a submission for another
  • Representing another person‟s ideas, processes, results, or words, as your own; using the ideas, organization, or words of another from a book, article, paper, computer file, or another source in any assignment without giving proper credit following accepted citation rules (plagiarism)
  • Forging or any other unauthorized alteration of a document, record, identification or other property maintained by an individual, department, or the University Altering, stealing, and or falsifying research data used in research reports, theses, or dissertations
  • Disregarding policies governing use of human subjects or animals in research
  • Attempting any of the above or assisting others to engage in any similar unacceptable behavior Knowingly violating copyright laws and regulations
  • Other similar acts of such dishonesty

Definition of Research Misconduct: Research Misconduct is a specific form of Academic Misconduct that has been defined by the Federal Office of Research Integrity and violations must be investigated and reported through the Office of the Provost. The essence of research scholarship is the pursuit of knowledge. Actions that undermine the integrity of scholarly activity impede the advancement of knowledge, compromise the work of other investigators, harm members of the general public, and damage the reputation of the University. NDNU employs the federal definition of research misconduct, as defined by the U.S. Office of Research Integrity, to mean the “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” According to the U.S. Office of Research Integrity:

  • Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them;
  • Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record;
  • Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person‟s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

Sanctions for Academic Misconduct Cases: University policy permits discipline up to and including the expulsion for academic misconduct. If a faculty member believes that a student has engaged in academic misconduct, the faculty member may take any of the following actions at the time the misconduct is detected, and must, as part of the process, present evidence to the student of the misconduct:

  1. The student may be reprimanded in writing.
  2. The student may be offered the opportunity to re-complete the assignment or re-take the exam
  3. The student may receive an “F” on a paper, test, or project.
  4. The student may receive an “F” for the course after the faculty member has consulted with the Department Chair or Program Director. In appropriate cases, the faculty member may require a cessation of the participation of the student in the academic activity as interim preventive measure, with the concurrence of the Dean, pending resolution of an academic misconduct case.